We wish to thank the 34 other participants for sharing their knowledge, expertise and opinion to help make the retreat a success. antivenoms to address deficiencies in some regions; (d) establishment of (i) programs for training in effective first aid, hospital management and post-treatment care of victims; (ii) a clinical CD-161 network to generate treatment guidelines and (iii) a clinical trials system to improve the clinical management of snakebite; (e) development of (i) novel CD-161 treatments of the systemic and local tissue-destructive effects of envenoming and (ii) affordable, simple, point-of-care snakebite diagnostic packages to improve the accuracy and rapidity of treatment; (f) devising and implementation of interventions to help the people and communities affected by physical and psychological sequelae of snakebite. pilot project will provide an affordable ambulance template to improve snakebite victims acquiring rapid access to effective CD-161 treatment throughout sub-Saharan Africa (s-SA), and globally. 2.1.3. Education CampaignsLocal, context-specific, public awareness campaigns are required to educate local communities in simple, inexpensive ways to safeguard themselves (footwear, bed nets, home design, etc.) and avoid harmful practices that increase the likelihood of snakebite. These would require MoH involvement and ideally incorporate the cultural stature of local traditional healers, and, importantly, with other local civil society initiatives and be part of universal health coverage. Education campaigns at the community level need to respect the cultural backgrounds. It was considered important that the education campaigns include a strategy of approaching the media, with the aim of targeting governments, public health authorities, international health CD-161 companies and foundations, and other philanthropic donors and stakeholders to acquire the political support and funding for consolidating a long-term, sustainable strategy to reduce snakebite incidence, mortality and morbidity. Current Progress and Prior Exemplars of Effective PracticeSignificant efforts have been performed in several countries. For instance, in Costa Rica, an active community education program has been underway for several decades, directed to rural areas of high snakebite risk, including indigenous communities. Similarly, an ongoing project in Papua New Guinea entails snakebite prevention campaigns at the local community level. A successful project was developed in Nicaragua, with the support of the Pan-American Health Organization (PAHO) aimed at developing integrated actions between the MoH and local traditional healers. 2.2. Improve the Clinical Management of Snakebite before, during and after Hospital CarePriority Objectives 2.2.1. Coordination and Standardisation of Clinical Snakebite ActivityClinical research groups urgently need to establish clinical trials networks for collecting data post-treatmentunified under an international coordinating body. The task for this body will include (i) identifying standard metrics and protocols for evaluation of antivenom effectiveness at all levels from phase 1 dose-finding through to Randomised Clinical Trials, to generate consensus on endpoint measurement and security assessment; (ii) providing guidance on endpoints; (iii) agreeing upon the most valuable prospective observational data using standardised and specific case definitions; and (iv) promoting clinical research aimed at identifying poorly known clinical manifestations of envenoming by some snake species in various regions of the world. It was also acknowledged that there exists an urgent need for systematic programs to teach basic aspects of diagnosis and clinical management of snakebite envenoming at university or college, hospital and local health center levels. This should include the publication and wide distribution of guidelines and algorithms for clinical management of envenoming. The use of new Information and Communication Technologies offers opportunities to CD-161 reach health staff in remote settings of high snakebite incidence. Current Progress and Prior Exemplars of Effective PracticeThe freely available WHO guidelines for the clinical management of snakebite in Africa [8] and Asia [23] need regionally organized efforts to ensure distribution to all areas and hospitals dealing with snakebite. Similarly, several countries have issued national guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of snake envenoming. The workshop recognized that the University or college of Adelaides week-long Rabbit polyclonal to CDC25C Clinical Toxinology Short Course is a type of training module that could be delivered more globally. The Papua New Guinean emergency response system also includes a hospital management of snakebite training module. There are groups actively working at improving clinical management of snakebites in several countries in Latin America, Africa, Asia and Oceania, but there is a need to integrate these efforts on a regional basis. The use of the informatics platform Elluminate by PAHO has been implemented for medical training programs on snakebite envenoming in Latin America. 2.2.2. Effective First Aid Protocols and TrainingResearch into the development of first aid methods that are.

We wish to thank the 34 other participants for sharing their knowledge, expertise and opinion to help make the retreat a success