The new coronavirus was identified as SARS-CoV-2 and, in March 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared a global pandemic caused by this virus. or produced in vitro by memory B cells, respectively. While showing negative on classical serological testing, the patients blood was positive in Cell-ELISA up to 1 1 year after the infection. Our observation highlights a potential mechanism of B cell-dependent, long-term protection in response to SARS-CoV-2 infection, suggesting that in a case of successful aging, the absence of specific antibodies in serum does not necessarily mean the absence of immune memory. strong class=”kwd-title” Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, in vitro IgG, B cell memory, cell-ELISA 1. Introduction In December 2019, an unknown new Coronavirus causing an infectious respiratory syndrome was observed in Wuhan, China. The new coronavirus was identified as SARS-CoV-2 and, in March 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared a global pandemic caused by this virus. Coronaviruses are a family of enveloped, single-stranded RNA viruses described as early as the 1960s [1]. A key feature Alendronate sodium hydrate of these virulent viruses is their ability to replicate in epithelial cells and pneumocytes of the Alendronate sodium hydrate lower respiratory tract in humans and thus, cause pneumonia and, in severe cases, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) [2]. In a heterogeneous infectious disease such as COVID-19, host factors are Alendronate sodium hydrate essential in determining the disease severity and progression [3]. Evidence from studies around the world suggests that age is the most significant risk factor for severe COVID-19 disease and its adverse health outcomes [4,5,6,7]. Given the disproportionate burden of severe COVID-19 disease and death in older adults, it is important to understand the mechanisms underlying this age-related vulnerability. The remodeling of the immune system due to aging and immunosenescence are considered to be the main reasons for the increased susceptibility to infections, particularly influenza, and for impaired immune responses to vaccination [8,9]. In particular, the antibody response in the elderly seems to be qualitatively and quantitatively affected and sometimes dysfunctional, leading to the decreased numbers of functional B cells, decreased titers of antigen-specific antibodies, and reduced duration of the humoral response, all together causing an impaired control of viral infections [10]. In contrast to the above-described condition that mainly affects frail subjects and implies COVID-19 high vulnerability, in fewer cases, aging is characterized by high physical, psychological, and social functioning, in the absence of common age-related diseases and disability, known as successful aging. Centenarians are the leading exponent of successful aging, which appears driven by a combination of genetic, immune, and environmental factors [11]. Accordingly, proteome analysis studies have shown that centenarian individuals have a distinct expression of proteins/pathways that reflect healthy immune function, including a preserved humoral immune response and increased B-cell activation [12]. To date, still few studies are available on how aging can modify the host immune response against the novel virus strain SARS-CoV-2. Regardless, there is a growing public health interest in the SARS-CoV-2-infected aged population, and research on successful aging with this virus is highly warranted. Our paper aims to illustrate a clinical case history of a centenarian woman patient who recovered from COVID-19 pneumonia, developing an immune response characterized by a long-term B cell memory response against SARS-CoV-2. 2. Case Description On the 23rd of February 2020, a 99-year-old female patient experienced major flu symptoms including cold, persistent cough, dyspnea, and a fever at 38 C. Alendronate sodium hydrate After consultation, the family physician prescribed paracetamol for temperature control. Over the next 2 days, the symptoms worsened and difficulties in respiration and persistent coughing had arisen. The primary care physician performed a home visit and after noting serious dyspnea using a bloodstream air saturation at 90, suggested hospitalization. Thus, february on 25, the patient visited the ER at Viterbo medical Rabbit Polyclonal to USP43 center, in Italy, for cough and dyspnea, where she was accepted at a higher degree of urgency due to the possible bargain of vital variables very quickly. She made an appearance alert, focused, and with dyspnea. At the target evaluation humid bronchial sounds were reported. The original diagnosis was severe asthmatic COPD followed by not really datable atrial fibrillation. The upper body X-ray, however, demonstrated a thickening from the bronchilovascular and peribronchial interstitium, because of interstitial disease probably. However,.

The new coronavirus was identified as SARS-CoV-2 and, in March 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared a global pandemic caused by this virus